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Beverage Making Beer, wine, mead, soda, cider, spirits, cordials, etc.

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  #1  
Old 12-13-2012, 02:08 PM
Ananke Female Ananke is offline
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Default Apple Cider Vinegar

I can't find any local supply of ACV with Mother where I live so I brought a bottle back from Ireland. There is half a bottle left and I was wondering if I could buy some organic apple juice and add what I have left of the ACV and let it mature.

Does anyone here do this and do you have instructions?
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Old 12-13-2012, 04:04 PM
tomato204 Male tomato204 is offline
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Default ACV

I don't know about vinegar making but my suggestion to you would be to add only a small amount of the old acv to some new juice, instead of adding anything to the vinegar with mother. That way if it doesn't work, you've not lost it all.
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Old 12-13-2012, 08:58 PM
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Ah vinegar fun to make but also very hard. It requires oxygen and the right temprature.

The quick explination is to make a good clean hard apple cider. Then you use acetic acid fermentation to convert it into vinegar. Then you clarify it in order to prevent further fermentation and decomposition.

It is important to note that the temperature of fermenting cider should be kept between 60 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Lower temperatures do not always produce a usable vinegar, and higher ones interfere with the formation of the mother of vinegar. Mother of vinegar is a mat that forms on the bottom of fermenting cider that has gone bad.

Glass, plastic, wood, enamel, or stainless steel containers should be used for making or storing vinegar, anything else will be eaten. The same holds true for making or storing foods that have more than 1 Tablespoon of vinegar in the recipe.

Well where to begin with the cider. The apples are very important, you need apples of the winter and fall varieties. Those found in spring and summer don't have enough sugar to make vinegar.

Don't use bread yeast for this. I prefere Lalvin EC-1118 yeast.

Once you make the cider vinegar, you transfer it to a large stainless steel, glass or wooden or even a stone vessel (I use a large stainless steel pot capable of holding 5 gallons.) Tie cheese cloth over the opening(s) of the container(s) to allow oxygen and spores but to keep out dust and bugs.

The time the second fermentation takes depends on the spores present. All vinegar strains work best at a temperatures of 70-80 degrees. They go dormant at low temperatures, but high temperatures will kill them just like yeast. The time required also depends on the surface to volume ratio, but mostly, you can figure on anywhere from three to nine months.

Big note homemade is stronger then store bought. You should see a scum form ontop that gets thicker this is vinegar mother, you can scoop this off and store it in the fridge and the next batch you can smear a bit on a dry corn cob in order to speed up the process..

Once it smells and tastes like vinegar, it's ready to dilute and store.

Another thing to note is that you must keep vinegar far far far far far away from any other fermenting going on or somehow you'll end up with everything being vinegar. (Learned the hard way.)

I've never had vinegar go bad doing this.



There are other types of vinegar you can make as well.

Sweet apple cider vinegar is made with fully ripened apples, free of decay and bad spots. Washed ground or crushed, then placed in a cider press or juice press and the juice moved to an open kettle, one in kettle boil until volume is reduced by one-half, skimming often, then ferment and allow to turn to vinegar.

White wine vinegar is made by mashing two pounds of raisins. Add to a gallon of water in an uncorked two-gallon jug. Let it stand between the magic 70-80 degrees and in about two months it will be white wine vinegar.

If you pour off the vinegar through a cheesecloth strainer, leave the raisins and sediment in the jug. Add half a pound of raisins and a gallon of water and start over again for another batch.

Raspberry vinegar is made by Pour three pints of water over 1 1/2 pints of fresh raspberries. Let stand overnight. Strain off the liquid, discard the berry pulp, clean the jar, put in another 1-1/2 pints of fresh raspberries, and pour the liquid over them. The next day, do it again. On the forth day, strain the clear liquor through several layers of cheesecloth, add one pound of sugar, stir until dissolved, and let stand uncovered for about 3 months.

Honey vinegar (fun to make and the one that turned my mead to vinegar) is made by pouring one gallon of boiling water over 4-1/2 pounds of honey in a clean crock or pot. Stir until honey is fully dissolved. Pitch a package of yeast and let it ferment it after fermented let it stand another 4-6 weeks until it tastes like vinegar.

Clover vinegar (fun to get rid of the sea of purple lawn blossoms) in a pot pour one quart of molasses and nine quarts of boiling water. Let stand until lukewarm. Add two quarts of clover blossoms and a package of yeast. Let ferment and then 2 weeks after you tend to have vinegar.

Danelion vinegar is made by dissolving two cups of honey in three quarts of hot water. Cool and add one quart of opened dandelion blossoms and a package of yeast dissolved in hot water. Cover with cheesecloth, but stir once a day for 10 days. At the end of which it should taste like vinegar.

Herb vinegars are delicious and to make them you use one cup of herbs for each pint of cider vinegar. basil, dill, mint, tarragon . . even finely chopped chives or celery leaves from the garden make a good herb vinegar. (I like using fennel fronds) Place in clear glass jars, cover, and let stand in the sun (like making tea) for two weeks or until flavor is as strong as you want it. Shake the bottles once or twice a day.

Horseradish vinegar is made by mixing 1-1/2 ounces grated horseradish, 1/2 ounce minced shallot, and 1/2 ounce paprika. Add to one pint of vinegar. Let stand 7-10 days. (I use daikon radish with great effect), strain and add back to the bottle.

Chili vinegar is made by finely choping 25 jalapeno peppers and pour over them one pint of vinegar. Let stand 10-14 days. Though depending on the chilies you may want to use less.


Garlic vinegar a staple in my home is made by putting one ounce of finely chopped garlic in a bottle. Pour one pint of strong vinegar over it. Let stand 10-14 days, shaking frequently.

Mint vinegar: Fill a wide mouth jar with clean peppermint. Fill the jar with vinegar. Cover tightly and let set 2-3 weeks. Pour the vinegar into another bottle and keep well corked.

Tarragon vinegar is made by gathering the tarragon just before it blossoms. Strip it from the larger stalks and bash it (bruise it), to release the flavor and aroma. Fill a jar or bottle with the herb, and cover it with vinegar. Let stand for two months.


Game vinegar is something I occationally pan fry my venison steaks with it is a mix of two chopped onions, three chopped red pepper pods, two tablespoons dark brown sugar, one tablespoon celery seed, one tablespoon ground mustard, one teaspoon turmeric, one teaspoon white pepper and one teaspoon salt. Put into a quart bottle and fill the bottle with cider vinegar. I have mixed a tablespoon of this in a stew or gravy and find it added a very nice flavor. I let this sit for 2 weeks shaking daily then strain it.

When doing venison steaks with the game vinegar I add 4 tablespoons of butter and 3 tablespoons of vinegar to the pan and then just cook the steaks in it.

To do this in one small jar put a solution of baking soda in water. The amount doesn't matter, but it should be enough so that a little undissolved soda settles to the bottom of the jar after you mix it well.

In the other jar, put some water left from cooking red cabbage. You want a strong purple color, steam a head of red cabbage in just a small amount of water.

Next you put a few ounces of water in the two glasses. The amount doesn't matter, but make certain you have the same amount in both.

Use an eyedropper to put enough drops of the purple cabbage liquid into the water in the glasses to give the water a definite color. Again, be careful to put the same amount in each glass.

Rinse the eyedropper in water to prevent contamination.Then put seven drops of the store-bought vinegar into one of the glasses of colored water which, if you want to be scientific, you can label control sample.

Rinse the eyedropper in water again to prevent contamination then add seven drops of your homemade vinegar to the other glass. . . which you can label test.

Now rinse the eyedropper in water again to prevent contamination. Put 20 drops of the baking soda solution in the control sample glass. Stir it with a wooden spoon.

The water will turn blue. The shade will vary with the ph level of your water. Then add baking soda solution, one drop at a time keeping track of the drops to the test glass. Stir after adding each drop.

Do this until the color of the water in the test glass exactly matches the color of the water in the standard glass.

If you add a drop too much, no problem. Don't count that extra drop. When the colors match, the acid content of your homemade vinegar is equal to the number of drops of baking soda solution you put in the test glass divided by four.

Example: if you used 56 drops of baking soda solution, the acidity is 56 divided by 4, or 14%.

But most recipes calls for 5% acidity. So you need to water it down. To make it 5%, subtract 5 from whatever your homemade vinegar tested: in my example, 14-5=9. Multiply that times the amount of vinegar (in ounces) you're going to dilute. Let's say you have one quart, or 32 ounces. 32 x 9 = 288. Divide that by 5, and you get 57.6.

Add 57.6 ounces of water to dilute 32 ounces of 14% vinegar to 5% acidity.

This is why it helps to keep a kitchen scale that goes up to 10 pounds helps. You can measure the exact amount of water for diluting vinegar.
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  #4  
Old 12-13-2012, 09:01 PM
Ananke Female Ananke is offline
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Thanks for that advice tomato, I would probably have emptied what I have left in without thinking.

I'm also wondering if I could speed up the process by just buying some organic cider and adding my ACV mother.

Weather permitting, I should be able to use my own apples next year so i'm just looking for something to tide me by.
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Old 12-13-2012, 09:12 PM
Ananke Female Ananke is offline
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Grendal, wow! thank you so much, that is fantastic information, especially about not having the vinegar fermenting near my wine, in fact I won't bother starting my wine now until the vinegar is sorted out.

I want to try all the vinegars you mention now.

As I said above, I should be able to use my own apples next year which are Autumn apples so should be sweet enough as you say. I've never made cider before but have made several wines and the process sounds similar.... what do you think about the shop bought organic cider, would the gas in it be a problem? Is that what you mean by a "hard cider"?
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Old 12-13-2012, 09:55 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ananke View Post
Grendal, wow! thank you so much, that is fantastic information, especially about not having the vinegar fermenting near my wine, in fact I won't bother starting my wine now until the vinegar is sorted out.

I want to try all the vinegars you mention now.

As I said above, I should be able to use my own apples next year which are Autumn apples so should be sweet enough as you say. I've never made cider before but have made several wines and the process sounds similar.... what do you think about the shop bought organic cider, would the gas in it be a problem? Is that what you mean by a "hard cider"?
No, mostly cause the shop bought organic ciders are not always organic. These include benzoic, acetic, sorbic, and propionic acids. My local stores carry many organic ciders which contain these acids to preserve the shelf life.

There are 45 permitted by the EU that are allowed to be in organic food that allow them to still have the organic level.

In the EU they are,

E 153: Vegetable carbon
E 160b: Annatto, Bixin, Norbixin
E 170: Calcium carbonate
E 220: Sulphur dioxide or E 224: Potassium metabisulphite
E 250: Sodium nitrate or E 252: Potassium nitrate
E 270: Lactic acid
E 290: Carbon dioxide
E 296: Malic acid
E 300: Ascorbic acid
E 301: Sodium ascorbate
E 306: Tocopherol-rich extract
E 322: Lecithins
E 325: Sodium lactate
E 330: Citric acid
E 331: Sodium citrates
E 333: Calcium citrates
E 334: Tartaric acid (L(+)–)
E 335: Sodium tartrates
E 336: Potassium tartrates
E 341(i): Monocalcium phosphate
E 400: Alginic acid
E 401: Sodium alginate
E 402: Potassium alginate
E 406: Agar
E 407: Carrageenan
E 410: Locust bean gum
E 412: Guar gum
E 414: Arabic gum
E 415: Xanthan gum
E 422: Glycerol
E 440(i): Pectin
E 464: Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose
E 500: Sodium carbonates
E 501: Potassium carbonates
E 503: Ammonium carbonates
E 504: Magnesium carbonates
E 509: Calcium chloride
E 516: Calcium sulphate
E 524: Sodium hydroxide
E 551: Silicon dioxide
E 553b: Talc
E 938: Argon
E 939: Helium
E 941: Nitrogen
E 948: Oxygen

In the US FDA Foods claiming to be organic must be free of artificial food additives, and are often processed with fewer artificial methods, materials and conditions, such as chemical ripening, food irradiation, and genetically modified ingredients. Pesticides are allowed as long as they are not synthetic.

In the united states, the list is a bit shorter.

The following nonagricultural substances may be
used as ingredients in or on processed products labeled
as "organic" or "made with organic (specified ingredients
or food group(s))" only in accordance with any
restrictions specified in this section.
(a) Nonsynthetics allowed:
(1) Acids
(i) Alginic
(ii) Citric - produced by microbial fermentation of carbohydrate substances
(iii) Lactic
(2) Bentonite
(3) Calcium carbonate
(4) Calcium chloride
(5) Colors, nonsynthetic sources only
(6) Dairy cultures
(7) Diatomaceous earth - food filtering aid only
(8) Enzymes - must be derived from edible, nontoxic plants, nonpathogenic fungi, or nonpathogenic bacteria
(9) Flavors, nonsynthetic sources only and
must not be produced using synthetic solvents and
carrier systems or any artificial preservative.
(10) Kaolin
(11) Magnesium sulfate, nonsynthetic sources
only
(12) Nitrogen - oil-free grades
(13) Oxygen - oil-free grades
(14) Perlite - for use only as a filter aid in food
processing
(15) Potassium chloride
(16) Potassium iodide
(17) Sodium bicarbonate
(18) Sodium carbonate
(19) Waxes - nonsynthetic
(i) Carnauba wax
(ii) Wood resin
(20) Yeast - nonsynthetic, growth on petrochemical
substrate and sulfite waste liquor is prohibited
(i) Autolysate
(ii) Bakers
(iii) Brewers
(iv) Nutritional
(v) Smoked - nonsynthetic smoke flavoring
process must be documented.
(b) Synthetics allowed:
(1) Alginates
(2) Ammonium bicarbonate - for use only as a
leavening agent
(3) Ammonium carbonate - for use only as a
leavening agent
(4) Ascorbic acid
(5) Calcium citrate
(6) Calcium hydroxide
(7) Calcium phosphates (monobasic, dibasic, and
tribasic)
(8) Carbon dioxide
(9) Chlorine materials - disinfecting and sanitizing
food contact surfaces, Except, That, residual chlorine levels
in the water shall not exceed the maximum residual
disinfectant limit under the Safe Drinking Water Act.
(i) Calcium hypochlorite
(ii) Chlorine dioxide
(iii) Sodium hypochlorite
(10) Ethylene - allowed for postharvest ripening of
tropical fruit
(11) Ferrous sulfate - for iron enrichment or
fortification of foods when required by regulation or
recommended (independent organization)
(12) Glycerides (mono and di) - for use only in
drum drying of food
(13) Glycerin - produced by hydrolysis of fats and
oils
(14) Hydrogen peroxide
(15) Lecithin - bleached
(16) Magnesium carbonate - for use only in
agricultural products labeled "made with organic (specified
ingredients or food group(s))," prohibited in agricultural
products labeled "organic"
(17) Magnesium chloride - derived from sea water
(18) Magnesium stearate - for use only in
agricultural products labeled "made with organic (specified
ingredients or food group(s))," prohibited in agricultural
products labeled "organic"
(19) Nutrient vitamins and minerals, in accordance
with 21 CFR 104.20, Nutritional Quality Guidelines For
Foods
(20) Ozone
(21) Pectin (low-methoxy)
(22) Phosphoric acid - cleaning of food-contact
surfaces and equipment only
(23) Potassium acid tartrate
(24) Potassium tartrate made from tartaric acid
(25) Potassium carbonate
(26) Potassium citrate
(27) Potassium hydroxid- prohibited for use in lye
peeling of fruits and vegetables
(28) Potassium iodide - for use only in
agricultural products labeled "made with organic
(specified ingredients or food group(s))," prohibited in
agricultural products labeled "organic"
(29) Potassium phosphate - for use only in
agricultural products labeled "made with organic
(specific ingredients or food group(s))," prohibited in
agricultural products labeled "organic"
(30) Silicon dioxide
(31) Sodium citrate
(32) Sodium hydroxide - prohibited for use in lye
peeling of fruits and vegetables
(33) Sodium phosphates - for use only in dairy
foods
(34) Sulfur dioxide - for use only in wine labeled
"made with organic grapes," Provided, That, total sulfite
concentration does not exceed 100 ppm.
(35) Tocopherols - derived from vegetable oil
when rosemary extracts are not a suitable alternative
(36) Xanthan gum

205.606 Nonorganically produced agricultural
products allowed as ingredients in or on processed
products labeled as organic or made with organic
ingredients.
The following nonorganically produced agricultural
products may be used as ingredients in or on processed
products labeled as "organic" or "made with organic
(specified ingredients or food group(s))" only in
accordance with any restrictions specified in this section.
Any nonorganically produced agricultural product
may be used in accordance with the restrictions
specified in this section and when the product is not
commercially available in organic form.
(a) Cornstarch (native)
(b) Gums - water extracted only (arabic, guar, locust
bean, carob bean)
(c) Kelp - for use only as a thickener and dietary
supplement
(d) Lecithin - unbleached
(e) Pectin (high-methoxy)

Some of these preservatives could impede the process.

Last edited by Grendal; 12-13-2012 at 10:01 PM. Reason: Yes, creepy organic lurkers
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  #7  
Old 12-16-2012, 10:39 PM
Ananke Female Ananke is offline
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That is so informative, I think i'm just going to buy apples or wait until I can harvest my own.

Thank you again
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Old 12-16-2012, 11:32 PM
Mad_Professor Mad_Professor is offline
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You can test cider for acidity.

Buy or titrate NaOH ( 0.001M, 0.0001M is better). High grade Potassium tartarate is a good standard to test the sodium hydroxide.

You will need volumetric glassware.

This is chemistry 101.

You want ca. 6% acidity for canning /preserving
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Old 12-17-2012, 12:57 AM
Dennis G Male Dennis G is offline
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I guess I must be missing something

I buy mine here

http://www.vitaminshoppe.com/store/e...FQtxQgodHF0AlQ


or here

http://www.amazon.com/Organic-Apple-...+cider+vinegar


Dennis G
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Old 12-17-2012, 10:52 AM
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Grendal Male Grendal is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ananke View Post
That is so informative, I think i'm just going to buy apples or wait until I can harvest my own.

Thank you again
Your welcome. Mhmm harvesting your own is a good bet. You need roughly 16 pounds of apples for a gallon of juice. A grinder and crusher is always good. You can build a grinder. Here's a good link for a homemade grinder. http://woodgears.ca/cider/index.html

I bought my press from here: http://www.midwestsupplies.com/25-it...het-press.html (not the actual one I got, but it's good for the average person, highly recommend an italian press they last a life time in my experiance.)


Quote:
Originally Posted by Mad_Professor View Post
You can test cider for acidity.

Buy or titrate NaOH ( 0.001M, 0.0001M is better). High grade Potassium tartarate is a good standard to test the sodium hydroxide.

You will need volumetric glassware.

This is chemistry 101.

You want ca. 6% acidity for canning /preserving
Yup that works too.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Dennis G View Post
Homemade is always better then store bought, bit harder but it's made with love and joy so tastes better. Plus who knows what happens to your vinegar before it gets to you. Do you know what's in chocolate for example?

WARNING: Only read the below if you wanna loose your appetite.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/13/op...levy.html?_r=0
http://www.fda.gov/food/guidancecomp.../ucm056174.htm
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Old 12-17-2012, 03:01 PM
Dennis G Male Dennis G is offline
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Grendal View Post
Your welcome. Mhmm harvesting your own is a good bet. You need roughly 16 pounds of apples for a gallon of juice. A grinder and crusher is always good. You can build a grinder. Here's a good link for a homemade grinder. http://woodgears.ca/cider/index.html

I bought my press from here: http://www.midwestsupplies.com/25-it...het-press.html (not the actual one I got, but it's good for the average person, highly recommend an italian press they last a life time in my experiance.)




Yup that works too.



Homemade is always better then store bought, bit harder but it's made with love and joy so tastes better. Plus who knows what happens to your vinegar before it gets to you. Do you know what's in chocolate for example?

WARNING: Only read the below if you wanna loose your appetite.

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/13/op...levy.html?_r=0
http://www.fda.gov/food/guidancecomp.../ucm056174.htm
oh I agree home made is better... but as you can see posted above, it is very labor intensive and some resource intense too... you could say home made MIGHT be better about nails... pistols, bedsheets... but some things I choose to purchase rather than attempt to make it by hand...LOL

Dennis G
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Old 12-17-2012, 03:05 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Dennis G View Post
oh I agree home made is better... but as you can see posted above, it is very labor intensive and some resource intense too... you could say home made MIGHT be better about nails... pistols, bedsheets... but some things I choose to purchase rather than attempt to make it by hand...LOL

Dennis G
That's true, but if it wasn't labor intensive, it wouldn't be oh so good lol.
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